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GW Law Library
Research Guides

U.S. Energy Law: Electricity

The focus of this guide is federal regulation of electricity.

About Independent System Operators (ISOs)

Independent System Operators (ISOs) grew out of:

  • FERC Order No. 888 Website
  • FERC Order No. 889 Website

where the Commission suggested the concept of an Independent System Operator as one way for existing tight power pools to satisfy the requirement of providing non-discriminatory access to transmission.

Source: FERC website Website

About Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs)

In FERC Order No. 2000 Website the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission encouraged the voluntary formation of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to administer the transmission grid on a regional basis throughout North America (including Canada).

Order No. 2000 delineated twelve characteristics and functions that an entity must satisfy in order to become a Regional Transmission Organization.

Source: FERC website Website

ISO/RTO Regions